Monday, 25 August 2014

Earthquake

reference-wikipedia

The following table lists the approximate energy equivalents in terms of TNT explosive force – though note that the earthquake energy is released underground rather than overground.[19] Most energy from an earthquake is not transmitted to and through the surface; instead, it dissipates into the crust and other subsurface structures. In contrast, a small atomic bomb blast (see nuclear weapon yield) will not, it will simply cause light shaking of indoor items, since its energy is released above ground.
31.6227 to the power of 0 equals 1, 31.6227 to the power of 1 equals 31.6227 and 31.6227 to the power of 2 equals 1000. Therefore, an 8.0 on the Richter scale releases 31.6227 times more energy than a 7.0 and a 9.0 on the Richter scale releases 1000 times more energy than a 7.0. Thus, E \approx 6.3\times 10^4\times 10^{3M/2}\,
Approximate Magnitude Approximate TNT for
Seismic Energy Yield
Joule equivalent Example
-0.2 7.5 g 31.5 kJ Energy released by lighting 30 typical matches
0.0 15 g 63 kJ
0.2 30 g 130 kJ Large hand grenade
0.5 85 g 360 kJ
1.0 480 g 2.0 MJ
1.2 1.1 kg 4.9 MJ Single stick of dynamite [DynoMax Pro]
1.4 2.2 kg 9.8 MJ Seismic impact of typical small construction blast
1.5 2.7 kg 11 MJ
2.0 15 kg 63 MJ
2.1 21 kg 89 MJ West fertilizer plant explosion[20]
2.5 85 kg 360 MJ
3.0 480 kg 2.0 GJ Oklahoma City bombing, 1995
3.5 2.7 metric tons 11 GJ PEPCON fuel plant explosion, Henderson, Nevada, 1988 Dallas, Texas earthquake, September 30, 2012
3.87 9.5 metric tons 40 GJ Explosion at Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 1986
3.91 11 metric tons 46 GJ Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb St. Patrick's Day earthquake, Auckland, New Zealand, 2013 [21][22]
4.0 15 metric tons 63 GJ Johannesburg/South Africa, November 18, 2013
4.3 43 metric tons 180 GJ Kent Earthquake (Britain), 2007 Eastern Kentucky earthquake, November 2012
5.0 480 metric tons 2.0 TJ Lincolnshire earthquake (UK), 2008
M_\text{w} Ontario-Quebec earthquake (Canada), 2010[23][24]
5.5 2.7 kilotons 11 TJ Little Skull Mtn. earthquake (Nevada, USA), 1992
M_\text{w} Alum Rock earthquake (California), 2007
M_\text{w} Chino Hills earthquake (Southern California), 2008
5.6 3.8 kilotons 16 TJ Newcastle, Australia, 1989
Oklahoma, 2011
Pernik, Bulgaria, 2012
6.0 15 kilotons 63 TJ Double Spring Flat earthquake (Nevada, USA), 1994 Approximate magnitude of Virginia/Washington, D.C./East Coast earthquake, 2011
Approximate yield of the Little Boy Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima (~16 kt)
South Napa Earthquake, 2014
6.3 43 kilotons 180 TJ M_\text{w} Rhodes earthquake (Greece), 2008
Jericho earthquake (British Palestine), 1927
Christchurch earthquake (New Zealand), 2011
6.4 60 kilotons 250 TJ Kaohsiung earthquake (Taiwan), 2010 Vancouver earthquake (Canada), 2011
6.5 85 kilotons 360 TJ M_\text{s} Caracas earthquake (Venezuela), 1967
Irpinia earthquake (Italy), 1980
M_\text{w} Eureka earthquake (California, USA), 2010
Zumpango del Rio earthquake (Guerrero, Mexico), 2011[25]
6.6 120 kilotons 500 TJ M_\text{w} San Fernando earthquake (California, USA), 1971
6.7 170 kilotons 710 TJ M_\text{w} Northridge earthquake (California, USA), 1994
6.8 240 kilotons 1.0 PJ M_\text{w} Nisqually earthquake (Anderson Island, WA), 2001
M_\text{w} Great Hanshin earthquake (Kobe, Japan), 1995
Gisborne earthquake (Gisborne, NZ), 2007
6.9 340 kilotons 1.4 PJ M_\text{w} San Francisco Bay Area earthquake (California, USA), 1989
M_\text{w} Pichilemu earthquake (Chile), 2010
M_\text{w} Sikkim earthquake (Nepal-India Border), 2011
7.0 480 kilotons 2.0 PJ M_\text{w} Java earthquake (Indonesia), 2009
M_\text{w} Haiti earthquake, 2010
7.1 680 kilotons 2.8 PJ M_\text{w} Messina earthquake (Italy), 1908
M_\text{w} San Juan earthquake (Argentina), 1944
M_\text{w} Canterbury earthquake (New Zealand), 2010
7.2 950 kilotons 4.0 PJ Vrancea earthquake (Romania), 1977
M_\text{w} 1980 Azores Islands Earthquake
M_\text{w} Baja California earthquake (Mexico), 2010
7.5 2.7 megatons 11 PJ M_\text{w} Kashmir earthquake (Pakistan), 2005
M_\text{w} Antofagasta earthquake (Chile), 2007
7.6 3.8 megatons 16 PJ M_\text{w} Nicoya earthquake (Costa Rica), 2012
M_\text{w} Oaxaca earthquake (Mexico), 2012
M_\text{w} Gujarat earthquake (India), 2001
M_\text{w} İzmit earthquake (Turkey), 1999
M_\text{w} Jiji earthquake (Taiwan), 1999
7.7 5.4 megatons 22 PJ M_\text{w} Sumatra earthquake (Indonesia), 2010
M_\text{w} Haida Gwaii earthquake (Canada), 2012
7.8 7.6 megatons 32 PJ M_\text{w} Tangshan earthquake (China), 1976
M_\text{s} Hawke's Bay earthquake (New Zealand), 1931
M_\text{s} Luzon earthquake (Philippines), 1990
7.9 10-15 megatons 42-63 PJ Tunguska event
1802 Vrancea earthquake
M_\text{w} Great Kanto earthquake (Japan), 1923
8.0 15 megatons 63 PJ M_\text{s} Mino-Owari earthquake (Japan), 1891
San Juan earthquake (Argentina), 1894
San Francisco earthquake (California, USA), 1906
M_\text{s} Queen Charlotte Islands earthquake (B.C., Canada), 1949
M_\text{w} Chincha Alta earthquake (Peru), 2007
M_\text{s} Sichuan earthquake (China), 2008
Kangra earthquake, 1905
8.1 21 megatons 89 PJ México City earthquake (Mexico), 1985
Guam earthquake, August 8, 1993[26]
8.35 50 megatons 210 PJ Tsar Bomba - Largest thermonuclear weapon ever tested. Most of the energy was dissipated in the atmosphere. The seismic shock was estimated at 5.0-5.2[27]
8.5 85 megatons 360 PJ M_\text{w} Sumatra earthquake (Indonesia), 2007
8.6 120 megatons 500 PJ M_\text{w} Sumatra earthquake (Indonesia), 2012
8.7 170 megatons 710 PJ M_\text{w} Sumatra earthquake (Indonesia), 2005
8.75 200 megatons 840 PJ Krakatoa 1883
8.8 240 megatons 1.0 EJ M_\text{w} Chile earthquake, 2010,
9.0 480 megatons 2.0 EJ M_\text{w} Lisbon earthquake (Portugal), All Saints Day, 1755
M_\text{w} The Great Japan earthquake, March 2011
9.15 800 megatons 3.3 EJ Toba eruption 75,000 years ago; among the largest known volcanic events.[28]
9.2 950 megatons 4.0 EJ M_\text{w} Anchorage earthquake (Alaska, USA), 1964
M_\text{w} Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and tsunami (Indonesia), 2004
9.5 2.7 gigatons 11 EJ M_\text{w} Valdivia earthquake (Chile), 1960
13.00 100 teratons 420 ZJ Yucatán Peninsula impact (creating Chicxulub crater) 65 Ma ago (108 megatons; over 4x1029 ergs = 400 ZJ).[29][30][31][32][33]
22.88 or 32 310 yottatons 1.3×1039 J Approximate magnitude of the starquake on the magnetar SGR 1806-20, registered on December 27, 2004.[clarification needed]

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